Remote Resources

Below is a list of important papers and reports we have found useful in researching issues relating to roads and roadless areas.  Soon we will add more resources and quantitative tools for stakeholders to introduce remoteness as a significant part of the wilderness conservation movement.

Important References

Ament, R. Clevenger, A. P., Yu, O., and A. Hardy.  2008.  An assessment of road impacts on wildlife populations in U.S. National Parks.  Environmental Management 42: 480-496.

Andrews, K. M. and J. W. Gibbons.  2005.  How do highways influence snake movement?  Behavioral responses to roads and vehicles.  Copeia (4): 772-782.

Aresco, M. J.  2005.  Mitigation measures to reduce highway mortality of turtles and other herpetofauna at a North Florida lake.  Journal of Wildlife Management 69 (2): 549-560.

Barthelmess, E. L., and M. S. Brooks.  2010.  The influence of body-size and diet on road-kill trends in mammals.  Biodiversity Conservation 19: 1611-1629.

Borda-de-Aqua, L., Navarro, L., Gavinhos, C., and Pereira, H. M.  2011.  Spatio-temporal impacts of roads on the persistence of populations: analytic and numerical approaches.  Eur J Wildl Rcs 55: 33-43.

Dodd, C. K. Jr. et al.  2004.  Effectiveness of a barrier wall and culverts in reducting wildife mortality on a heavily traveled highway in Florida.  Biological Conservation 118: 619-632.

Elzanowski, A. et al.  2009.   Amphibian road mortality in Europe: a meta-anaylsis with new data from Poland

Erickson, W. P. et al.  2005. A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from  Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions .  USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-191.

Fahrig, L., and T. Rytwinski. 2009. Effects of roads on animal abundance: an empirical review and synthesis. Ecology and Society 14(1): 21. [online] URL:

Fahrig, L. and G. Merriam.  1994.  Conservation of fragmented populations.  Conservation Biology 8: 50-59.

Forman, R. T. T.  1995.  Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Forman, R. T. T.  2000.  Estimate of the area affected ecologically by the road system in the United States.  Conservation Biology 14(1): 31-35.

Forman, R. T. T. et al.  2002.  Road Ecology:  Science and Solutions.  Island Press.

Gagnon, J. W. et al.  2011.  Factors associated with use of wildlife underpasses and importance of long-term monitoring.  Journal of Wildlife Management 75: 1477-1487.

Gibbs, J. P. and W. G. Shriver.  2002.  Estimating the effects of road mortality on turtle populations.  Conservation Biology 16:1647-1652.

Huijser, M. P. et al.  2008.  Wildlife-Vehicle Collision Reduction Study: Report to Congress.  Submitted to the Federal Highway Administration.

Kociolek, A. V. et al.  2011.  Effects of Road Networks on Bird Populations. Conservation Biology 25 (2): 241–249.

Laurance, S. G. et al.  2004.  Effects of road clearings on movement patterns of understory rainforest birds in Central Amazonia.  Conservation Biology 18: 1099-1109.

Maehr et al. 1991.  Mortality patterns of panthers in Southwest Florida.  Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Fish and Wildl. Agencies 45: 201-207.

Mckenna, D.D. et al.  2001. Mortality of Lepidoptera along roadways in Central Illinois.  Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 55(2):63-68.

Riley, S. J. 1984.  Effect of clearing and roading operations on the permeability of forest soils in Karuah catchment, New South Wales, Australia.  Forest Ecol. and Mgt. 9: 283-293.

Shine et al. 2004 Why did the snake cross the road?  Effects of roads on movement and location of mates by garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Ecology and Society 9(1): 9. [online] URL:

Smith et al. 2005.  Roads and Florida’s herpetofauna:  A review and mitigation case study.  Pgs 32-40 in W. E. Meshaka, Jr. and K. J. Babbit (Eds.) Amphibians and Reptiles:  Status and Conservation in Florida.  Krieger Publishing Company, Florida.

Trombulak, S. C. and C. A. Frissell.  2000. Review of the ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities.  Conservation Biology 14(1): 18-30.

Webb, R. H. 1983.  Environmental Effects of Off-Road Vehicles.  Springer-Verlag.